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By CYRIL MAZANSKY
The earliest cigarette cards trace their origins to the Crimean War of 1853-56, when smoking rose to the heights of popularity. Originally, cards were plain stiffeners in the cigarette packs. With advances in printing and lithography, it did not take long for the tobacco companies to recognize the marketing potential of illustrated cards.
Tags: Andrew Roberts, Arthur Tedder, Boer War, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Gordon, Crimean War, Cyril Mazansky, David Lloyd George, Dwight Eisenhower, H.H. Kitchener, Jacky Fisher, John de Robeck, Josef Stalin, Munich Agreement, Potsdam Conference, Teheran Conference, Winston S. Churchill,
By PAUL ADDISON
Both Churchill and Chamberlain understood that Nazi Germany was a time bomb. But whereas Chamberlain imagined that it could be defused by diplomacy, Churchill believed that it could only be defused by force, or the threat of force. When the diplomacy of appeasement failed Chamberlain was compelled to accept—albeit with the profound reluctance of a man who loathed war—that no other response was possible. In the final analysis the British Empire, which was already in decline, had to be sacrificed so that Britain itself could live.
Tags: F.E. Smith Lord Birkenhead, Hoare-Laval Pact, John Simon, Lord Halifax, Maurice Cowling, Mohandas Gandhi, Munich Agreement, Neville Chamberlain, Paul Addison, Robert Crowcroft, Stanley Baldwin, Winston S. Churchill,
By BRADLEY TOLPPANEN
Of all those appointed to his cabinet in May 1940, Prime Minister Winston Churchill had known Leo Amery the longest—back to when they were schoolboys. Despite the longevity of their relationship, they were never very close. Rather, as Robert Rhodes James wrote, “there was always a deﬁnite restraint, a lack of warmth, a noticeable caution and reserve” between them. Nevertheless, Amery played a notable part in ensuring Churchill’s premiership.
Tags: Anschluss, Appeasement, Balfour Declaration, Bradley Tolppanen, David Lloyd George, Edward Heath, Harold Macmillan, Hitler, Indian Army, Julian Amery, Leopold Amery, Munich Agreement, Neville Chamberlain, Winston S. Churchill,